It is important to note and for a very good reason, that DNA does absolutely not determine ones ethnicity or self identity. At least half of our DNA gets lost eight to ten generations back. Right wingers, especially in the USA, have used DNA as some kind of an ethnic marker to measure ones ethnicity with. For them it is a convenient tool to politically lambast and deny Native American groups federal or state acknowledgment and assistance.
And, for those fools out there that believe in some kind of an elite race – read, white people – destined to dominate others on the virtue of their perceived excellence. And of course the same goes for other groups of various skin colour who believe in a similar idiotic ideology. There is no such thing as ethnic purity. The British are themselves, for example, a genetic mixture of Celtic, Germanic, Roman and countless other groups that have contributed genetic material into the gene pool of the British Isles. No one asks another person in Ireland, Scotland, Wales or England how much Celtic, Saxon, Anglo or Nordic/Viking blood they have in their veins. They are all Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Breton, English, Manx, all according to their own individual feelings and identity. But still, they are all a mixture of one another as well as Roman, French, Polish, German or whatever ethnic group has contributed to the British Isles gene pool. Same can be said of all other nations and ethnic groups around the world today.
As there is no such thing as a pure-blooded Englishman, then, why does the bureaucracy in the USA still cling to such notions as blood relation as an ethnic marker for Native Americans? Why are Native Americans still treated as second-class citizens bound to the will of bureaucrats at government agencies in Washington? And, why in the world are Native Americans not allowed self-government similar to those that are granted to the 50 states in the union? Such a move would give Native Americans a chance to be masters of their own fate. Having decision making powers that is long overdue in their case.
But, listen, and listen good! Our true strength lies in diversity. There you have it! In addition, one coloured world is immensely more dull and dark than a multicoloured one. Lets embrace that fact and cast away bigotry and small-mindedness. To quote a great man, the wise Charlie Chaplin, ‘We want to live by each other’s happiness – not by each other’s misery. We don’t want to hate and despise one another. In this world there is room for everyone. And the good earth is rich and can provide for everyone. The way of life can be free and beautiful, but we have lost the way. Let us fight for a world of reason, a world where science and progress will lead to all men’s happiness. Soldiers! In the name of democracy, let us all unite!‘
A window has been opened in genetic research into ourselves, but barely a crack. What little we can see implies such a depth of knowledge that is still largely unexplored. It must however be handled with care so brutes and maniacs wont get a chance of abusing it. Genetics is and should be part of our thirst for knowledge, our desire to understand ourselves and our behaviour.
That being said, genetic studies are useful to get a glimpse of people’s histories and their mixture through the ages. Genetic studies are though far away from being able to tell us the whole story, they can only give us a hint into our past and possible future. It is nevertheless a fascinating science that is so rapidly evolving that breakthroughs are occurring on a very fast rate.
One of the ways to get an idea of our human ancestors is to be genetically tested and see which haplogroup we belong to. In the female line mitochondrial DNA, shortened to mtDNA, can tell us who our foremother is. In the male line however the same can be done regarding forefathers by checking the Y chromosome, shortened to yDNA.
In the USA, the highly charged political atmosphere regarding genetic studies on Native Americans, is a hotly debated issue. Many Native American nations are very reluctant at best to commit to such studies, the mistrust towards federal, state, regional authorities and corporate entities and scientists is based on a long and tragic history of abuse and neglect. Therefore, reliable studies regarding Native Americans and their genetic ancestry are few and other material regarding it unreliable. Some Native American nations have still not been studied.
Hopituh haplogroup mtDNA:
The sample is extremely low and thus hardly worth mentioning, except, that although at this low level, it indicates that haplogroup B is the most common by far among the Hopituh as it is among other Native American nations in the southwest.
Hopituh haplogroup yDNA: unknown