Hopituh location

The ethnic group whose autonym is Hopituh, later shortened to Hopi by which they are better known nowadays, means in their language ‘the Peaceful Ones‘.

The Hopituh is made up of refugees from different directions and ethnic and cultural ancestry. The largest group seems to have been Uto-Aztecan-speakers from the Sinaguan, Salado and Hohokam cultures that spoke the original Hopituh language.

Into this group came later Keresan-speaking clans from the Kayenta (Tusayan) Anasazi, along with San Juan and Mesa Verde Anasazis that seem to have been Keresan-speaking as well. Not all members of these clans migrated. Some stayed and formed their own clan, keeping their old name and function within a new cultural group, adopting a language of a migrating and populous group of a hunting and gathering Athabascan-speaking people from the north, later known as the Diné or Navaho.

Other clans may have come from the direction of the Zuni that speak a language isolate. Whether these clans were originally Zuni or from further east from the Rio Grande is not entirely clear. The most probable explanation is that some of the clans that are said to have come from the Zuni villages had just stayed there a little while on their wanderings westwards.

Still later came Tewa-speaking clans fleeing Spanish retribution in 1692 after the Pueblo Revolt twelve years earlier. These settled the Hano village as well as in other settlements.

Hopituh land in the 16th century.
Klick here for a larger map

Hopituh villages in the 21st century. It is important to note that apart from the still Tewa-speaking village of Hano, all the other Hopituh villages regard themselves as ethnic Hopituh. Ethnicity is a fluid concept that in this case favours the Hopituh identity and downplays notions of Keresan or Tewa ancestries from a distant past.

First Mesa, 3.578 residents in 2000:

  • Wálpi (Walpi), 148 residents in 2000, mostly Keresan of the Alngnyûmû (Ala, Horn) phratry and Tsu‘nnyûmû (Snake, Rattlesnake, Chua) phratry.
  • Sitsomovi (Sichomovi, Sichonlovi), 677 residents in 2000, mostly Keresans of the Honaninyûmû (Badger, Honani, Honan-wungwa) phratry and Tewas of the Asanyûmû (Wild mustard, Tansy mustard, Tca‘kwaina nyûmû) phratry.
  • Hano (Tegua), 447 residents in 2000, Tewas who fled from Abiqui in New Mexico, one of today’s core Genizaro settlements in that state.
  • Polacca, 2.046 residents in 2000, mostly Tewas.
  • Pongsikya (Keams Canyon, Pongsikvi (Hopi name), Lókʼaaʼdeeshjin (Navaho name), 260 residents in 2000, began as a trading post, today settled by Tewas and Hopis.

Second Mesa, 1.110 residents in 2000:

  • Songóopavi (Shungopavi, Shongopovi), 632 residents in 2000, mostly Hopituhs of the Honnyûmû (Bear, Honau, Hona-wungwa) phratry, Hopituhs or Keresans of the Paaqapnyûmû (Pakab, Reed) phratry, and Hopituhs of the Patkinnyûmû (Patki, Water-house, Cloud, Flood) formerly Kaeu (Corn) phratry.
  • Supawlavi (Sipaulavi, Shipolovi), 101 residents in 2000, mostly Hopituhs of the Honnyûmû (Bear, Honau, Hona-wungwa) phratry.
  • Musungnuvi (Mishongnovi), 377 residents in 2000, mostly Hopituhs of the Honnyûmû (Bear, Honau, Hona-wungwa) phratry.

Third Mesa, 2.507 residents in 2000:

  • Orayvi (Oraibi), ? residents in 2000, mostly Hopituhs of the Honnyûmû (Bear, Honau, Hona-wungwa) phratry.
  • Kiqötsmovi (Kykotsmovi, New Oraibi, Lower Oraibi, K-Town), 776 residents in 2000, mainly Christian converts from Old Oraibi with a traditional pagan minority.
  • Múnqapi (Upper Moenkopi), 964 residents in 2000, mostly Hopituhs or Keresans of the Kookopnnyûmû (Wood, Firewood, Fire, Redheads) phratry.
  • Hotvela-Paaqavi (Hotvela, Hotevila), 767 residents in 2000, mostly Hopituhs of the Honnyûmû (Bear, Honau, Hona-wungwa) phratry.
Hopituh land in 2020.

Present-day Hopituh land is engulfed inside the larger Diné (Navaho) reservation that spans Arizona, New Mexico and Colorado.

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