Muskoke history

Other names for the Muskoke: Muscogee, Maskoki, Alabama, Koasati, Hitchiti, Shawnee, Yuchi.

The Muskoke are a mix of Koasati, Alabama, Hitchiti, Shawnee, Yuchi.

My theory: The Muskoke group was formed by mixture of Alabama-Koasáti with Hitchiti,
a formation of Moundville, Dallas and Lamar Cultures. First to join in a confederacy
while they were gathered along Okmulgee River in the late 1600s, were:
Kasihta [Alabamas]
Coweta [Hitchitis]
Tukabahchee [Shawnee?]
Kaeledji [Shawnee?]
Atasi [?]
Kolomi [?]
Tuskegee [Koasáti]

A few years later they were living along Tallapoosa, Coosa and upper part of Chattahoochee Rivers
where the following groups had joined them:
Kúsa [Koasáti]
Abihka [Alabama-Koasáti]

Here below are archaeological cultures of the southeastern USA, the area occupied by the ancestors of the Muskoke.

South Appalachian Mississippian (SAM) Culture

Lamar Mississippian Culture 900-1650 CE
Etowah Culture 900-1200
Savannah Culture 1200-1350
Lamar Culture 1350-1650

Mississippian agricultural chiefdoms, led by venerated chiefs who lived on the summits of the flat-topped mounds in the centers of their villages, paramount chiefdoms or provinces, endemic warfare, population well over 100.000 people.
Coosa-Etalwa Locale
Oconee-Altamaha Locale
Chattahoochee Locale
Appalachian Summit Locale
Middle Ocmulgee Locale
Lower Ocmulgee Locale
Middle Flint Locale
Upper Savannah Locale
Middle Savannah Locale
Lower Savannah Locale
NC Piedmont Locale
Wateree Locale

[Athli (Hitchiti)]

Upper Coosa Locale
Lamar Culture
Little Egypt Phase 1375-1475
abandonment of Coosa, people move downstream
Barnett/Brewster Phase 1475-1550
people move further downstream
Ocmulgee Fields Culture
end of Lamar but descendant culture
Weiss Phase 1550-1600
people move further downstream
Whorton’s Bend Phase 1600-1700
people move further downstream
Unoccupied 1700-1800
[Koosa Muskogee]

Coosa-Etalwa Locale
900-1800 AD
Etowah Culture
Woodstock Phase 900-1000
Early Etowah Phase 1000-1100
transitional between Woodland and Mississippian cultures
Late Etowah Phase 1100-1200
first true Mississippian cultural manifestations, platform mounds appear, ceremonial feasting, stone box graves, stamped pottery designs, an artistically and technically advanced culture
Savannah Culture
Unoccupied 1200-1250
Early Wilbanks Phase 1250-1325 – Etowah River Valley
Late Wilbanks Phase 1325-1375 – Etowah River Valley
decline of Etowah 1350-75, formation of Coosa
Dallas Culture
intrusive from Dallas in Tennessee Valley, founding Coosa chiefdom
Unnamed Phase 1250-1325 – Coosawattee River Valley
ceramics similar to Dallas Culture
Unnamed Phase 1325-1350 – Coosawattee River Valley
Lamar Culture
decentralization of authority, population movement
away from large centers, Lamar complicated stamped and Lamar incised ceramics,

Little Egypt Phase 1350-1475 – Coosawattee River Valley
Barnett Phase 1475-1575 – Coosawattee River Valley
abandoned after 1575
Stamp Creek Phase 1375-1450 – Etowah River Valley
Brewster Phase 1450-1520 – Etowah River Valley
majority of the population is confined to the Coosa-Oostanaula Rivers, mound building activities appear to decrease
Mayes Phase 1425-1475
Boyd/Galt Phase 1800-1850

Oconee/Altamaha Locale
900-1662 AD
Etowah Culture 950-1250
Armour Phase (Early Etowah) 950-1100
Stillhouse Phase (Late Etowah) 1100-1250
Etowah Complicated Stamped ceramics
Savannah Culture 1250-1375
Scull Shoals Phase 1250-1375
site abandoned during this period
Lamar Culture 1375-1640
Duvall Phase (Early Lamar) 1400-1450
Iron Horse Phase (Middle Lamar) 1450-1550
after 1450 Savannah Valley chiefdoms fled to Oconee Valley because of pressure from Cofitachequi
Dyar Phase (Late Lamar) 1520-1550
Wolfskin Phase 1550-1670
could represent a movement of people from the Upper Savannah from Tugalo Phase, settled in the largely unpopulated Upper Oconee/Broad River area
Bell Phase (Historic) 1580-1670
complicated stamped pottery, mound centers established,
[Athli (Hitchiti)]

Appalachian Summit Locale
Connestee Phase 150–1000 AD
Lamar Culture
Pisgah Phase 1000-1500
dependent on maize agriculture, sites ranged from individual farmsteads to large nucleated villages with platform mounds and palisades, stratified society with hereditary elites
Qualla Phase 1300-1838
identical ceramics as Tugalo/Estatoe Phases in Upper Savannah R., possibly migrants from Savannah R.
Early Qualla 1300-1500
Middle Qualla 1500-1700
similar to the Tugalo phase
Late Qualla 1700-1838
absorbed and gradually becoming Cherokee-speakers
[Yuchi ?]

Middle Coosa Valley Locale
Ellis Phase 800-1300
? 1300-1500
Moundville Culture
Kymulga Phase 1500-1650
direct ancestors of Abihka Muskogees, plural society with predominantly Moundville ceramics with local Ellis Phase and Lamar influences from a group of Coosa people who settled among locals and merged, ceramics similar to Barnett Phase, the locals were the Talisi people who either moved or were decimated by deceases in the vake of de Soto
Dallas Culture
Woods Island Phase 1650-1715
ceramics similar to McKee Island phase upriver in Weiss Basin, continuities from Kymulga, heavy influences from Koasátis of Dallas immigrants from Guntersville Basin on Tennessee R
Childersburg Phase 1715-1780
similar to Woods Island Phase
[Abihka Muskogee]
mix of: Koasátis, Alabama, locals

Lower Tallapoosa Locale
Hope Hull Phase 800-1000
Autauga & Union Springs Phases 1000-1300
Brannon Phase 1100-1300
intrusive from Moundville
Lamar Culture
Shine I Phase 1300-1400
Shine II Phase 1400-1575
plural society with predominate Lamar with minority Moundville, mix of intrusive Walnut Creek Phase from Etowah with local Autauga & Shine I Phases, 10% is similar to Stewart Phase Lamar, developed corn agriculture, chiefdom political organization, mounds some 27% of burials with goods
Okmulgee Fields Culture
Atasi Phase 1575-1715
continuation from Shine II, plural society composed of Lamar and Moundville, partial fusion of Big Eddy and Shine II, later joined Upper Creeks, some 65% of burials with goods
Early Tallapoosa Phase 1715-1800
a major style zone for Upper Creeks
Late Tallapoosa Phase 1800-1836
some 91% of burials with goods, serious increase in consumption of European goods
mix of: Koosa & Alabama

Middle Chattahoochee Locale
Averett Phase 800-1200
Moundville Culture
intrusive from Moundville
Rood I Phase 1100-1200
Rood II Phase 1200-1300
Rood III Phase 1300-1400
Lamar Culture
intrusive in this locale
Singer Phase 1400-1450
Bull Creek Phase 1450-1500
Stewart Phase 1500-1600
Moundville Culture
Abercrombie Phase 1500-1600
Cosseta/Kasihta (Alabama in origin) from Moundville Culture, intrusive from Tallapoosa R. & Moundville, united with local Hitchiti to form Coweta
? Culture
Blackmon Phase 1600-1700
plural society made of: Coweta (local Hitchiti of Stewart Phase Lamar) & Cosseta/Kasihta (Alabama in origin) from Moundville Culture,
both speaking Muskogee when first recorded, part of Lower Creeks, ceramics similar to Atasi Phase

Lawson Field Phase 1715-1836
Lower Creek period
[Athli (Hitchiti)]

Black Warrior Locale
900-1650 CE
Moundville Culture
West Jefferson Phase 900-1100
small villages scatered over favorable locations, no mounds, autonomous vilages and a relatively egalitarian society, possibly locals being transformed into Mississippian chiefdom society by intruders from Shiloh
Moundville I Phase 1050-1250
intrusive from Shiloh Phase, dramatic changes in the social landscape, single mound towns with hamlets and farmsteads, simple chiefdoms with politically independent towns, greatest number of people in Moundville
Moundville II Phase 1250-1400
full chiefdom established, increase in population, rural surroundings depopulated, city palisaded, 29 mounds built, four secondary centers emerged, levy system established, in 1300 at least 1.000 residents of main city, Moundville gains clear political ascendancy over the region
Moundville III Phase 1400-1550
Moundville serves as center of politics and ritual for the social, political and religious elite, long distance exchange of prestige goods
Moundville IV (Burial Urn, Alabama River) Phase 1550-1700
the chiefly superstructure begins to unravel rapidly, Moundville no longer in use, people again living in nucleated villages, society becomes egalitarian again
Unoccupied 1700-1800
[Ake (Alibamu)]

Tombigbee Locale
Moundville Culture 1050-1600 AD
Summerville I Phase 1050-1200
close contact with people of Moundville, simple chiefdom allied with Moundville, more reliance on maize but balanced diet
Summerville II Phase 1200-1400
appearance of Moundville Engraved ceramics, close interaction with Moundville, abundance of nonlocal artifacts, more egalitarian society than Moundville, no palisades, more mound construction
Summerville III Phase 1400-1500
Summerville IV Phase 1500-1650
discontinued use of Moundville Engraved ceramics, increase in warfare with palisades and ditches
Unoccupied 1650-1800
[Ake (Alibama), later Choctaw]

Upper Alabama Locale
Autauga Culture
Early Autauga Phase 900-1050
Middle Autauga Phase 1050-1100
Late Autauga Phase 1100-1300
Moundville Culture
Cedar Creek Phase 1050-1250
intrusive from Moundville
Brannon Phase 1100-1300
intrusive from Moundville
Unoccupied 1300-1450
Big Eddy Phase 1450-1575
intrusive from Moundville, Alabama-speakers
Alabama River Phase 1575-1700
result of local Moundville Culture with remnant of Moundville from Black Warrior Valley, no elites mounds or public works, more egalitarian society, beginning of urn burials, poor health
Tallapoosa Phase 1700-1800
[Ake (Alabama)]

Tennessee Valley Locale
Henry Island Phase 1200-1500
Crow Creek Phase 1500-1700
houses match those of the Mouse Creek on Hiwassee R.
locale abandoned 1700-1850
[Ati (Koasáti)]

East Tennessee Locale
900-1800 AD
Martin Farm Culture 900-1000
transition to Mississippian culture, villages consist of 10-20 houses conical burial mounds
Hiwassee Island Culture 1000-1250
shell-tempered pottery, more formal village construction, centralized plaza, community buildings, presence of palisades at some sites,
conical burial mounds

Dallas Culture 1250-1650
intrusive from Shiloh Moundville, three platform mounds, hierarchical, central plazas, elites & commoners, large log houses, Dallas Ware ceramics, larger towns, significant population growth, priest class
[Ati (Koasáti)]

NC Mountains Locale
Pisgah Culture
Early Pisgah 1000-1250
Tuckasegee R., Pigeion R., French Broad R.
Late Pisgah 1250-1450
Tuckasegee R., Pigeion R., French Broad R.
Qualla Culture
Early Quallah Phase 1300-1500
Hiwassee R., Little Tennessee R., Tuckasegee R.
Middle Quallah Phase 1500-1700
Hiwassee R., Little Tennessee R., Tuckasegee R., Pigeon R.
Late Quallah Phase 1700-1838
Hiwassee R., Little Tennessee R., Tuckasegee R., Pigeon R.

Wateree Locale
Lamar Culture
Belmont Neck Phase 1200-1250
Adamson Phase 1250-1300
Town Creek Phase 1300-1400
McDowell Phase 1400-1600
Mulberry Phase 1600-1650
Daniels Phase 1650-1700

NC Piedmont Locale
Lamar Culture
Burke Phase 1400-1650
ceramics similar to Tugalo Phase and Qualla, migrants from Savannah R.

Middle Flint Locale
Lamar Culture
Bronson Phase 1300-1400
Thorton Phase 1400-1550
Lockett Phase 1550-1600
[Athli (Hitchiti) Muskhogean]

Lower Ocmulgee Locale
Lamar Culture
Square Ground 1300-1650

Lower Savannah Locale
Lamar Culture
Savannah II Phase 1100-1300
Irene Phase 1300-1580
Altamaha Phase 1580-1700

Middle Savannah Locale
Lamar Culture
Beaverdam Phase 1200-1300
Hollywood Phase 1300-1400
Rembert Phase 1400-1500

Upper Savannah Locale
Lamar Culture

unocupied 1150-1250
Beaverdam Phase 1250-1350
Rembert Phase 1350-1450
Tugalo Phase 1450-1650
Estatoe Phase 1650-1750/1838
Cherokee Lower Towns, absorbed and gradually becoming Cherokee-speakers.

Moundville Mississippian Culture 900-1650 CE
Moundville Culture
Summerville Culture

Hobbs Island
Pensacola Culture
[Okala (Choctaw), Chickasaw, Ake (Alibamu)]

Middle Alabama Locale
Spersely occupied 1300-1500
Pensacola Culture
Furman Phase 1500-1550
Durand’s Bend Phase 1550-1600
Liddell Phase 1600-1700
Unoccupied 1700-1800

Pensacola Bay to Choctawhatchee Locale
800-1700 AD
Weeden Island II Culture 400-750
Tate’s Hammock Phase 400-750
Wakulla Culture 750-1100
Coden Phase 750-1100
Pensacola Culture 1100-1700
intrusive colony from Moundville, produced and sold marine shell, salt and exotic lithics, a mixture of Weeden Island and Mississippian ideas, sustained interaction with Plaquemine, shell tempered ceramics, blending of agriculture and marine resources
Andrews Place Phase 1100-1250
Bottle Creek I Phase 1250-1400
Bottle Creek II Phase 1400-1550
Bear Point Phase 1550-1700
Port Dauphin/Doctor Lake Phases 1700-1800

Apalachicola R. Locale
750-2020 CE
influenced by Lamar Culture, chiefdom, platform mound builders, stratified society, Lamar style potery but with grit tempering, practiced intensive and extensive maize agriculture, with hunting, fishing and collecting wild fruits, sellers of whelk shells from the Gulf Coast mostly to Etowah, bought prestigious Etowah plates and other copper objects
Wakulla Weeden Island Culture 400-1200
Fort Jackson I Phase 1050-1150
Early Fort Jackson II Phase 1150-1250
Fort Walton Culture 1200-1500
influenced by the Etowah of n.-Georgia, Fort Walton ceramics, sand tempering ceramics, agriculture, descendants of Weeden Isl., platform mounds, paramount chiefdoms, in later periods increased contact with Lamar Culture of central Georgia which produced Leon-Jefferson cultural elements with declining importance of chiefdoms following Spanish entrada into the area
Tallahassee Hills Phase -1250
possibly intrusive from Moundville through Rood II Phase
[Koasati or Alabama-speakers]
Late Fort Jackson II Phase 1250-1400
Fort Jackson III Phase 1400-1500
Leon-Jefferson Culture 1500-1704
Leon-Jefferson ceramics
Spanish Mission Period 1633-1704
Creek-Seminole Period 1704-1850
[Apalachee Muskhogeans]

%d bloggers like this: